Water softeners


Operating principle:

  • During the process of dehydrogenation, large amounts of ammonia and carbon dioxide are released due to the decomposition of organic materials.

  • These gases are very soluble in water. They combine with the formation of ammonium hydrogen carbonate (NH4HCO3). NH4HCO3 is a strong buffer with a pH below 7. At this pH, most of the calcium and magnesium ions are soluble. If a sufficient amount of phosphorus in the solution (HPO4 and PO4) is present in the solution, we have a system with all the necessary components for the potential formation of struvite (MgNH4PO4 · 6H2O).

  • A necessary condition for keeping the struvite in solution is a low pH (the lower, the more dissolved ions). Deposition of struvite depends on pH and concentration.

  • A sudden change in pressure or temperature will promote the release of dissolved CO2. This leads to an increase in pH and precipitates salts such as struvite, CaCO3, CaSO4.

  • FLOSPERSE™ is required to prevent salt precipitation. FLOSPERSE™ complex forms the metal ions. After that, these ions become inaccessible to precipitation from the solution.

  • An additional advantage of FLOSPERSE™ is that it will dissolve any salt already deposited in a given time period.

Steaming control

The problem of crystallization

  • Dehydration, especially fermented sludge, may result in disturbances due to crystallization and precipitation. Often, layers consisting of salt crystals mixed with silt and polymer particles accumulate.

  • The formation of crystals depends on the nature of the composition and concentration of ions, as well as on the pH value. The other important factor in dehydrating the sludge is the release of CO2. As the pH value increases, a precipitate is precipitated. The onset of precipitation depends on the solubility of the products.

The mechanism of crystallization

Supersaturation of Mg and Ca salts
High centrifuge pressure ± 2000 bar
Sudden Strong Release of CO2
Increase pH
Deposition of dissolved salts, i.e. struvite, CaCO3, CaSO4, apatite

Aminophosphonic acid complexes

Double action

  • Complexation of Ca and Mg ions

  • Preventing the formation of crystals

  • The best point of dosing – directly into the water area

  • Depending on the concentration in the salts, the proportion of FLOSPERSE ™ is required from 10 to 30 ppm.

Product Chemistry Application Packing Technical Data
FLOSPERSE™ PX 60 N modified aminophosphonic acids and phosphonates Inhibition of precipitation of Mg salts (struvite), Ca and Fe (carbonates, sulfates, phosphates).
The product prevents precipitation and dissolves existing deposits from pipes and machine parts. The recommended dose is 20-60 ppm.
Container 1000 kg

Drum 200 kg

pH ~ 5.5

Density (20°C): 1.13 kg/l

 FLOSPERSE™ HT  modified phosphonic acids and phosphonates A mixture of products with a special effect against the precipitation of calcium.

High complexing ability to Ca ions near the effective threshold potential.
The tube dose is between 10-40 ppm.

Container 1000 kg

Drum 200 kg

pH ~ 5.5 – 5.7

Density (20°C): 1.13 kg/l

 FLOSPERSE™ DISSOLVER  modified phosphonic acids, phosphonates and surfactants  Specially designed to remove crystals, sludge polymers from pipes, dehydrated machines and heat exchangers. Container 1000 kg

Drum 200 kg

pH ~ 2.1

Density (20°C): 1.21 kg/l

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